Research


New York State Reformatory Ledgers Relating to Inmate Education, Labor, and Conduct

Held by the New York State Archives


Overview of the Records

Repository:

New York State Archives

New York State Education Department

Cultural Education Center

Albany, NY 12230

Summary:
Under the Elmira system, each inmate's release was determined by good behavior and the accumulation of marks for school achievement, labor productivity, and adherence to institutional rules. This series consists of ledgers recording the "credits" and "debits" used in this elaborate marking system. Each page of the ledger contains the record of a single inmate. The inmate's ledger was maintained until he was paroled or had served his maximum sentence.
Creator:
Title:
Quantity:
21 cubic feet (40 volumes)
Inclusive Dates:
1880-1905
Series Number:
B0140

Arrangement

Numerical by consecutive number.

Scope and Content Note

Under the Elmira system, each inmate's release was determined by good behavior and the accumulation of marks for school achievement, labor productivity, and adherence to institutional rules. This series consists of ledgers recording the "credits" and "debits" used in this elaborate marking system.

Each page of the ledger contains the record of a single inmate. Credits and debits are totaled monthly. The inmate's ledger was maintained until he was paroled or had served his maximum sentence.

An inmate's ledger page contains the following information: consecutive number; name and age; offense; maximum sentence; date received; height and weight; note if inmate is "Colored"; proposed trade; work assignment (e.g., bindery, paint shop, tailor); name of classes and marks in evening trade school; marks in drawing school; marks in military squad; and monthly totals of debits and credits (year and month, debits for demeanor, study, and labor, description of specific offenses in demeanor, expenses for store purchases, doctor, and board, credits for work, marks for school, notation of promotion or demotion to a new grade, and date of parole or release).

Use of Records

Access Restrictions

There are no restrictions regarding access to or use of the material.

Related Information

Related Materials

Series B2011 Demeanor report book, contains related records concerning inmate conduct at the New York State Reformatory at Elmira.

Access Terms

Corporate Name(s):
Geographic Name(s):
Subject(s):
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Detailed Description

Dates Contents Box

Accretion: B0140-80
1886-1892 Volume 1 - Inmate nos. 51-383 (received 1876-1892); dates of conduct information 1886-1892 1
1891-1900 Volume 2 - Inmate nos. 338-472 (received 1891-1900); dates of conduct information 1891-1900 2
1898-1904 Volume 3 - Inmate nos. 426-553 (received 1898-1904); dates of conduct information 1898-1904 3
1880-1887 Volume 4, Part 1 - Inmate nos. 584-779 (received 1880-1881); dates of conduct information 1880-1882 4
1884-1892 Volume 5 - Inmate nos. 1650-2199 (received 1884-1886); dates of conduct information 1884-1892 5
1886-1892 Volume 6 - Inmate nos. 2200-2689 (received 1886-1887); dates of conduct information 1886-1892 6
1887-1892 Volume 7 - Inmate nos. 2699-3174 (received 1887-1888); dates of conduct information 1887-1892 7
1888-1892 Volume 8 - Inmate nos. 3175-3659 (received 1888-1889); dates of conduct information 1888-1892 8
1889-1892 Volume 9 - Inmate nos. 3660-4200 (received 1889-1900); dates of conduct information 1889-1892 9
1891-1895 Volume 10 - Inmate nos. 3901-4400 (received 1890-1891); dates of conduct information 1891-1895 10
1890-1892 Volume 11 - Inmate nos. 4201-4931 (received 1890-1891); dates of conduct information 1890-1892 11
1891-1894 Volume 12 - Inmate nos. 4401-4750 (received 1891); dates of conduct information 1891-1904 12
1891-1894 Volume 13 - Inmate nos. 4751-5050 (received 1891-1892); dates of conduct information 1891-1904 13
1891-1892 Volume 14 - Inmate nos. 4932-5352 (received 1891-1892); dates of conduct information 1891-1902 14
1892-1894 Volume 15 - Inmate nos. 5051-5450 (received 1892); dates of conduct information 1892-1894 15
1892-1895 Volume 16 - Inmate nos. 5451-5825 (received 1892-1893); dates of conduct information 1892-1895 16
1883-1893 Volume 17 - Inmate nos. 1458-5821 (received 1883-1893); dates of conduct information 1894-1897 17
1893-1895 Volume 18 - Inmate nos. 5826-6199 (received 1893); dates of conduct information 1893-1895 18
1893-1897 Volume 19 - Inmate nos. 6200-6599 (received 1893-1894); dates of conduct information 1893-1897 19
1894-1897 Volume 20 - Inmate nos. 6600-6999 (received 1894-1895); dates of conduct information 1894-1897 20
1897-1899 Volume 21 - Inmate nos. 2163-6999 (received 1885-1895); dates of conduct information 1897-1899 21
1897-1899 Volume 22 - Inmate nos. 7000-7399 (received 1895-1896); dates of conduct information 1897-1899 22
1895-1897 Volume 23 - Inmate nos. 7052-7399 (received 1895-1896); dates of conduct information 1895-1897 23
1898-1900 Volume 24 - Inmate nos. 2163-7796 (received 1885-1896); dates of conduct information 1898-1900 24
1896-1897 Volume 25 - Inmate nos. 7400-7799 (received 1896-); dates of conduct information 1896-1897 25
1896-1900 Volume 26 - Inmate nos. 7800-8199 (received 1896-1897); dates of conduct information 1896-1900 26
1899-1902 Volume 27 - Inmate nos. 4485-8674 (received 1891-1898); dates of conduct information 1899-1902 27
1897-1900 Volume 28 - Inmate nos. 8200-8674 (received 1897-1898); dates of conduct information 1897-1900 28
1898-1901 Volume 29 - Inmate nos. 8675-9125 (received 1898-1899); dates of conduct information 1898-1901 29
1901-1902 Volume 30 - Inmate nos. 8676-9550 (received 1898-1900); dates of conduct information 1901-1902 30
1899-1901 Volume 31 - Inmate nos. 9126-9555 (received 1899-1900); dates of conduct information 1899-1901 31
1900-1902 Volume 32 - Inmate nos. 9551-10050 (received 1900); dates of conduct information 1900-1902 32
1902-1904 Volume 33 - Inmate nos. 4485-10044 (received 1891-1900); dates of conduct information 1902-1904 33
1900-1903 Volume 34 - Inmate nos. 10051-10500 (received 1900-1901); dates of conduct information 1900-1903 34
1901-1904 Volume 35 - Inmate nos. 10501-10990 (received 1901-1902); dates of conduct information 1901-1904 35
1902-1904 Volume 36 - Inmate nos. 10991-11424 (received 1902); dates of conduct information 1902-1904 36
1902-1905 Volume 37 - Inmate nos. 11425-11999 (received 1902-1903); dates of conduct information 1902-1905 37
1903-1905 Volume 38 - Inmate nos. 12000-12399 (received 1903-1904); dates of conduct information 1903-1905 38
1904-1905 Volume 39 - Inmate nos. 12400-12699 (received 1904); dates of conduct information 1904-1905 39
1904-1905 Volume 40 - Inmate nos. 12700-12999 (received 1904); dates of conduct information 1904-1905 40