Dutch colonial council minutes, 28 September 1648

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Whereas the honorable director general and council have seen and by experience observed that several of the Scotch merchants and petty traders who from time to time come over in the ships from the fatherland do and aim at nothing else than solely to spoil trade and business by their underselling, dispose of their goods with the utmost speed, give 11 or 12 guilders in loose seawan for one beaver and, when sold out, go back again in the ships the same year in which they came, without bestowing or conferring any benefit on the country, all the burdens whereof, on the contrary, the inhabitants who own property must bear;

Therefore, to prevent such destroyers of trade, it is judged proper and profitable for New Netherland and the inhabitants thereof and it is hereby ordained that henceforth those merchants, scots and petty traders who come over in any ships from Patria with the intention to trade here either with Christians or heathens by the large or small measure, ell or weight, shall not be permitted to carry on any business in the least on shore here unless they take up their abode here in New Netherland for three consecutive years and, in addition, build in this city of New Amsterdam a decent burgher dwelling, each according to his circumstances and means. All merchants and others who bind themselves to transact business in a burgher house and to remain three years in the country shall be admitted, but no one else, the skipper or merchant of his own or his master's ship alone excepted, but these shall not be at liberty to keep any shop on shore. Thus done in the presence of the honorable director general, Mr. Dincklagen, Mr. La Montagne, Briant Nuton and Paulus Leendertsen, this 18th of September Anno 1648, in New Amsterdam.

Ordinance for the better enforcement of the ordinance against fires[1]

The honorable director general and council of New Nether land, for the purpose of preventing all calamities from fire, order and command the firewardens to visit every house in this city of New Amsterdam and to see to it that everyone is keeping his chimney properly clean by sweeping, and to oblige those who are in default immediately to pay the fine of three guilders, to be applied according to the ordinance to this effect published on the 21st of January 1648. Thus done and ordained in council in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, the 28th of September 1648. Present: the honorable director general, L. Dincklage, la Montagne, Briant Nuton, Paulus Leendertsen.

Ordinance for the recovery of wages due to Indians ] [2]


Revised from Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, p. 102.

Revised from Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, p. 103.


Translation: Scott, K., & Stryker-Rodda, K. (Ed.). New York Historical Manuscripts: Dutch, Vol. 4, Council Minutes, 1638-1649 (A. Van Laer, Trans.). Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.: 1974.A complete copy of this publication is available on the New Netherland Institute website.